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This article has the following sections.
A Ritzian Interpretation of Variable Stars
Non-pulsating Cepheid Variables
Ritzian Gamma-Ray Bursts
Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays
Unsung Binaries and de Sitter's Whimsical Images?
GRB 790731 and omega Geminorum
Non-pulsating Cepheid Variables
(Original Title: Cepheids. It gets worse!)
Installed 6 June 1999 - Latest update 20 Jan 2010
Copies of this supplement were distributed at the Galileo Back In Italy II
conference in Bologna Italy 26-28 May 1999.
Robert S. Fritzius
Vladimir Sekerin felt he could explain Cepheid variables
using Ritz's c+v effects. This page is a continuation of that idea.
Up until 1914 Cepheids were considered to be spectroscopic binaries,
but following papers by Plummer and Shapley in that year,
astronomers came to think of them as pulsators. See: H.C. Plummer,
"Note on the Velocity of Light and Doppler's Principle,"
MNRAS, 74, 660 (1914)
and Harlow Shapley, "On the Nature and Cause of Cepheid Variation,"
Ap. J., 40, 448 (1914)
The author of this webpage is of the opinion that Cepheids may yet turn
out to be binaries (wobbly common envelope binaries) with Ritzian relativity
producing the periodic brightness and spectral variations. [Added 20 Jan 2010.]
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The cyclic color changes of Cepheid variables appear to be consistent with Ritz
c+v information arrival time modulation. This modulation
is such that during a brightness peak there is a time-wise compression of the
observed spectrum, which produces higher observed frequencies. If there were to be
evenly spaced time markers impressed on the luminous flux (at the source) we would
see that their time-wise spacing decreases during the bright phase, reaching minimum
separation at the brightness peak. During the lower intensity "trough" of the light
curve the time markers would be stretching further apart, reaching maximum separation
at minimum intensity. As the arrival time "clock" varies in speed, the stellar spectrum
changes in color (Hottest at peak, coolest at trough.) Here, we are considering a bright star
with a dim (mostly unseen) companion.
Figure 1 shows five Ritzian light curves. The first is for a visible component with orbit
eccentricity e = 0. The last four are for the same component but with
e = 0.15 and with different perihelion positions. (The orbit shapes are
exaggerated to show their orientations with respect to the line of sight to the observer.)
For each of these, the visible component is shown in the orbit position corresponding
to maximum brightness and maximum apparent radial velocity as seen by the observer.
(According to the Ritzian hypothesis these maxima occur when the component's
acceleration with respect to the observer is greatest.)
Figure 1. Ritzian (Linear Scale) Light Curves
About 90 percent of published Cepheid variable light curves resemble case (4), fast
rise-slow decay (FRSD). About 10 percent present symmetrical curves that
that could be classified as either case 1 or case 3. In the Cepheid variable studies I have
seen, Case 2 slow rise-fast decay (SRFD), light curves are extremely rare, less
than one percent and those published are very close to being symmetrical.
The extinction theorem predicts that higher frequencies (this has to be qualified) will
have longer extinction lengths than lower frequencies. This is based on the idea that
electrical charges in the interstellar medium interact less readily with higher frequency
electromagnetic perturbations than with lower frequency perturbations.
[The next paragraph still contains a good measure of wrong think. It would be
sort of OK for a binary system that is approaching us. RSF 26 Oct 2003]
Starting from this premise it can be inferred that higher frequency parts of the "squeezed"
light will travel further before reaching extinction. . . .
The overall effect of this frequency-dependent speed of light differential will be to cause the
higher-frequency components to arrive earlier than the lower-frequency components.
This arrival time "skewing" is proposed as the mechanism which may be moving cases
1, 2, and 3 in the direction of case 4 (FRSD). Cepheid variables with greater FRSD
effects may tend to be located in regions of space with greater extinction lengths. [This
paragraph is a combination of two former paragraphs with some "B.S." (bad science)
removed. RSF 28 June 2002]
The following fiture shows light curves of the Cepheid Variable Eta Aquilae, HD 187929.
(Spectral type F6-G2.) From Stebbins, Kron, and Smith(1).
U = Ultraviolet, V = Violet, B = Blue, G = Green, R = Red, I = Infra-Red.