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Anopheles mosquito

Anopheles quadrimaculatus Survey

Webpage installed on 12 Apr 2003 - Latest Update 23 Jun 2016.

Key words
Allozyme polymorphisms, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say,
Anopheles smaragdinus, Anopheles maverlius, Malaria

Mississippi used to be host to three sibling species of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. They are still here but their names have been changed. We now have:

Sibling species A = Anopheles quadrimaculatus
Sibling species B = Anopheles smaragdinus
Sibling species D = Anopheles maverlius

In 1990, 1992, and 1993 the Entomology Department of Mississippi State University conducted statewide Anopheles quadrimaculatus collections and identified sibling species by using starch gel enzyme electrophoresis. We also found Anopheles crucians and Anopheles punctipennis, but this study focused on the "quads." ("Quads" refers to the four dots on each of their wings.

The following maps and files summarize the results of our identifications.(1)

Anopheles quadrimaculatis Say

Computer Generated Frequency Contours
Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say
Anopheles quadrimaculatis Say
Manually Generated Frequency Contours
Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say
(Google Earth was used preparation of this map.)

The manually drawn map on the right started from Figure 1 in the July 1993 Semi-Annual Report for the Ricelands Mosquito Management Program(1). The map shows the following rivers. Little Sunflower (West central - incomplete), Yazoo (West central - incomplete), Big Black (West central), Pearl (South central), Leaf (Southeast), and the Tennessee - Tom Bigbee Waterway (Northeast). (More rivers to come!)

In an insecticide resistance study, which was run concurrently with the statewide survey, we found that An. quadrimaculatus sibling species A was much more resistant to Malathion and Permethrin than were sibling species B and D. In this writer's opinon, the sibling A species "hot spots" at (a) the Pearl River in down-town Jackson and at the Yockanookany River on the southeast edge of Kosciuscko, may have been caused by that resistance.

The Ruben Morgan Rodeo grounds, at the eastern edge of the state, may be another hot spot but improved plotting of the data points [and one re-averaged point] makes that look less probable. The 95% value, the next point north of the Rodeo, was earlier calculated as 90%.

Data Files

ms-aq-90.txt Sibling species by collection site, 1990.
ms-aq-92.txt Sibling species by collection site, 1992.
ms-aq-93.txt Sibling species by collection site, 1993.
gen1.txt (143 kilobytes) ASCII file used as an aid in species identifications.
alleles.htm Table  of starch gel electrophoretic allele mobilities.
alleles.gif   Graph of starch gel electrophoretic allele mobilities.
ms-anop.xls Microsoft Excel Summary Data File for 1990-1993.

Field and Laboratory Personnel Involved

James Mallet (P.I.), Robert Fritzius, Sonny Ramaswamy,
Michael Caprio, Titiya Chittihunsa, Huang Jai Xing

For detailed information regarding this study, please see James Mallet's webpage:
Anopheles quadrimaculatus and related mosquitoes in Mississippi.

The sibling species frequencies given in files ms-aq-90.txt, ms-aq-92.txt, and ms-aq-93.txt, above, were used in a 2004 United States Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex study(2) published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


(1) Sonny B. Ramaswamy and Robert Fritzius, Semi-Annual Report for the Riceland Mosquito Management Program, 1 January - July 15, 1993. Submitted Dr. Jim Olson, Department of Entomology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.

(2) Rebecca S. Levine, A. Townsend Peterson and Mark Q. Benedict, Distribution of Members of Anopheles qaudrimaculatus Say s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Implications for Their Roles in Malaria Transmission in the United States, Journal of Medical Entomology, 41, 607-613 (2004).

Contact Mr. Robert Fritzius at