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Internal Proper Motions
for M101, M33, M51 and M81

(This page is an appendix to the Missing Mass article which is available via the "Up One Level" option above.)
Installed 27 July 2003. Latest Update 1 July 2005.

van Maanen's Table III

The table above is a replica of Table III in Adriaan van Maanen's 1921 paper (MA21).

See Messier 33 Internal Motions for photos and analysis of van Maanen's study on M33 along with selected results from recent VLA motion studies for the same object.


MA21 - Maanen, Adriaan van, Investigations on Proper Motion - Fifth Paper: The Internal Motion in the Spiral Nebula Messier 81, Astrophysical Journal, 54, 347-356, (1921). - NADS

Shade Tree Physics