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A Ritzian Interpretation of Variable Stars

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If we take HU Aquarii's published orbit period of 125 minutes, T (1/2 orbit) = 62.5 minutes) and estimate the average orbital speed v as being 1000 km/sec for the fastest component (from figure 6, Schwope, et. al.) we can use equation 4 to calculate a hypothetical Ritz-de Sitter overtaking distance L.


This comes out to be L = 0.018 LY or 29 times the Sun-Pluto distance.

The shape of the apparent velocity curve for the HVC producing component is more or less equivalent to an "acceleration" produced apparent Doppler curve for an object whose extinction distance is on the order of 0.25 L. The extinction distance, based on the HVC component, would thus be about 0.0045 LY or seven times the Sun-Pluto distance.

Gamma-Ray Bursts

[This section was moved to a separate page on 17 Jan 2002.]

The Microscopic Arena

In the introduction, it was first stated that Ritz's c + v hypothesis might be applicable on microscopic scales. For a Bohr atom, where we choose to consider electrons as Ritz emission sources, we can use expression (6) to calculate the overtaking distance.


It may be thought of as a kind of coherence limit measure. Beyond this distance the saddle-like presentations get wider and wider as a function of distance and begin overlapping in a fashion that hides observable evidence of the periodic nature of the Bohr orbit.

For a Bohr radius of 5.3 x 10e-11 meter and electron orbital frequency of 6.8 x 10e+15 cycles per second, we have T (one half orbit) = 7.3 x 10e-15 seconds and linear velocity v = 7.2 x 10e+5 meters/second. This gives us a Ritz-de Sitter overtaking distance of 4.6 microns. At distances greater than this, atomic electrons will tend to appear to be electrodynamically non-interactive with their environment while for shorter distances they may interact coherently with each another.


Abbreviated versions of this article were presented as a talk at the Galileo Back In Italy II Conference at the University of Bologna, Italy, 26-28 May 1999; as Poster TP37 at the 5th Huntsville Gamma Ray Burst Symposium at Huntsville AL, USA, 18-22 Oct 1999; as a talk at the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) Spring Meeting 2000 Apr 15, 2000, in Huntsville, Alabama; and as a poster at the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium Challenges to the Standard Paradigm: Fundamental Physics and Cosmology, at The Beckman Center, Irvine, CA, Nov 1-3, 2002. [These notes regarding meeting presentations were combined on 15 Sep 2003.].

The source code for D-CEPHEI is available at ../bas/d-cephei.bas . It can be saved to disk and run using Microsoft QuickBASIC.


(1) W. Ritz, Ann. de Chim. et de Phys., 13, 145-275 (1908). [For an English translation of several sections from this document see: Critical Researches on General Electrodynamics.
(2) W. de Sitter, Phys. Zeits., 14, 429 (1913) - (English Trans.). Also see the on line de Sitter Bio which mentions his 1913 argument against Ritz's theory.
(3) J.G. Fox, Am. J. Phys., 33, 1 (1965).
(3a) W. Pauli, Theory of Relativity, (1958), pp. 5-9, Pergamon Press, Inc., New York. [This is a secondary reference. The Tolman references are R. Tolman, Phys. Rev. 31, 26 (1910) - NADS ; ibid. 35, 136 (1912) - NADS. These NADS articles require subscripton for access.]
(3b) J.G. Fox, Am. J. Phys., 30, 297 (1962).
(4) V.I. Sekerin, Contemporary Science and Regularity in its Development, 4, 119-123, (1987) Tomsk University. See: Gnosiological Peculiarities in the Interpretation of Observations (For Example the Observation of Binary Stars).
(5) A. Einstein, Sidelights on Relativity, G.B. Jeffery and W. Perrett, translators (Methuen & Co., London (1922) p. 11.
(6) T. H. Hankins and J. A. Eilek, "Radio Emission Signatures in the Crab Pulsar," The Astrophysical Journal, 670, 693-701, 2007. NADS
(7) E. Massaro, M. Litterio, G. Cusumano, T. Mineo, Nucl. Phys. B - Proc. Supp., 69, 269-272 (1998). NADS
(8) R.Gilmozzi, R. Messi, and G. Natali, Astrophys. J., 245, L119 (1981). NADS
(9) A. Schwope, K-H. Mantel and K. Horne, Astron. & Astrophys., 319 894-908 (1997). NADS
(10) R.A. Waldron, The Wave and Ballistic Theories of Light, Frederick Muller (1977)

Related Webpages and Publications

A study of non-Keplerian velocities in observations of spectroscopic binary stars, John B. Hearnshaw, Siramas Komonjinda, Jovan Skuljan, and Pam M. Kilmartin - arXiv.org > astro-ph > arXiv:1211.5527. "We conclude that small non-Keplerian effects, which are clearly detectable for six of our stars, make impossible the precise determination of spectroscopic binary orbital eccentricities for many late-type stars to better than about 0.03 in eccentricity, unless the systematic perturbations are also carefully modelled." Submitted 23 Nov 2012 [Added 01 Dec 2014.]

Don't Take This Extrasolar Planet Off the List Just Yet - By Robert Roy Britt - Senior Science Writer - Space.com - Posted on Science - Hubble Space Telescope, 09 Sep. 2002 -- "Tennessee State University astronomer Greg Henry said on Sep 5 [2002] his team is very confident that signals thought to represent a planet's gravitational influence on the star's position [HD 192263] -- a technique called radial velocity or the wobble method -- were instead dark regions, like sunspots, rotating across the star." "Swiss planet hunter does not agree.." -- "...'photometric' measurements of star spots on HD 192263 reflect the same time period of repetition, 24 days, as the radial velocity measurements..." [Added 10 Jan 2005. Simultaneous photometric and radial velocity measurements had not been made as of Sep 2002.]

Astron. Astrophys. 322, 751-755 (1997) - L. Labhardt, A. Sandage and G.A. Tammann - Procedure to find <B>, <R>and <I> for Cepheids from isolated observations using the complete light curve in V - "Due to the extreme pressure on HST telescope time, Time Allocation Committies have always taken a minimalist approach in their assignment of the amount of telescope time. The time eventually assigned has always been insufficient to obtain complete Cepheid light curves in two wavelength bands." - [Added 12 Dec 2004.]

http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/astronomy-and-time/astronomy-facts/instruments/worlds-most- advanced-camera-captures-binary-star-eclipse
World's most advanced camera captures binary star eclipse - National Maritime Museum - Royal Observatory Greenwich
European astronomers have used a completely new type of optical detector to simultaneously measure colour and intensity changes in a binary star for the first time. [Added 03 Dec 2004.][Link does not work - 25 Aug 2018.]

V.M. Bernstein's http://www.physical-congress.spb.ru/english/bernshtein/1/bernshtein.asp
Development of Gauss-Weber Electrodynamics ... Without Waves. [Link does not work - 25 Aug 2018.]

Marshall Space Flight Center's Mar 28, 1998 Space Sciences Feature reports Scientist finds 2-in-1 burster; Pulsar goes off twice each orbit "A NASA scientist has found a new puzzle in the sky, an X-ray pulsar that appears to be in a lopsided orbit that makes it burst twice every 'year' rather than once." According to the Ritzian hypothesis the "bursting" object would be a compact binary (perhaps a neutron star and a brown dwarf) which has a harmonically phase-locked period equal to one half of that for its orbit around the Be star with its circumstellar disk).
See: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/1998/ast25mar98_1/ and Figure 6, above.

Kevin Krisciunas' article: A New Class of Pulsating Variable Stars http://www.astro.washington.edu/kevin/gdor.html which deals with what might have been hypothesized to be single stars with rotational modulation of starspots but because of their Cepheid-like phase relation between their light curves and their apparent radial velocity curves have been reclassified as exhibiting non-radial gravity modes.
      (At first look the behavior of these objects may be considered as consistent with the Ritzian hypothesis being "pushed" in this article.)
[Link needs update 25-Aug 2018.]

Line doubling phenomena From On the origin of shock waves in the Cephei star BW Vulpeculae, 8/13/1998 by P. Mathias, D. Gillet, A.B. Fokin and T. Cambon.

R.A. Waldron's book, The Wave and Ballistic Theories of Light(10), for an excellent study comparing light wave propagation in an electromagnetic elastic medium versus light projected from electrodynamic sources.

Bryan Wallace's Farce of Physics . See Chapter 6 - Relativity Revolution, which deals with Sekerin's paper and the 1989 Leningrad conference on The Problem of Space and Time in Modern Physics.

Light Curves of Variable Stars : A Pictorial Atlas by C. Sterken (Editor), C. Jaschek (Editor) at Amazon.com

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This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System.

Robert Fritzius fritzius@bellsouth.net